Fact: One needs to take care of one’s health.
Health periodical checkups are important to identify problems in time, before they become cause of serious concern. Thus, the patient is fully able to respond in time and receive the proper treatment without being too late. By diagnosing and receiving treatment in due time you increase your chances to a better, longer and healthier life. Age, gender, family history, lifestyle and the type of daily routine are important factors that make up a personalized check up, just as a suit tailored to fit, in order that we benefit optimal results. The colon, breast or prostate cancer, the diabetes, cardiac diseases, bone degenerations and many other diseases can be easily prevented by general periodical checkups. Dedicate to your health a few hours every 6 months or one year and you will have a long life.
To prevent and protect our body.
A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose in your blood. Glucose, a type of simple sugar, is your body’s main source of energy. Your body converts the carbohydrates you eat into glucose. Glucose testing is primarily done to check for type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. Diabetes is a condition that causes your blood glucose level to rise. The amount of sugar in your blood is usually controlled by a hormone called insulin. However, if you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly. This causes sugar to build up in your blood. Increased levels of blood sugar can lead to severe organ damage if left untreated. In some cases, blood glucose testing may also be used to test for hypoglycemia. This condition occurs when the levels of glucose in your blood are too low.
The term HbA1c refers to glycated haemoglobin. It develops when haemoglobin, a protein within red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout your body, joins with glucose in the blood, becoming ‘glycated’. By measuring glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), clinicians are able to get an overall picture of what our average blood sugar levels have been over a period of weeks/months.
AST and ALT are considered to be two of the most important tests to detect liver injury, although ALT is more specific for the liver than is AST and is more commonly increased than is AST. Sometimes AST is compared directly to ALT and an AST/ALT ratio is calculated. This ratio may be used to distinguish between different causes of liver damage and to distinguish liver injury from damage to heart or muscle.
An erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) test is sometimes called a sedimentation rate test or sedrate test. This test doesn’t diagnose one specific condition. Instead, it helps your doctor determine whether you’re experiencing inflammation. The doctor will look at ESR results along with other information or test results to help figure out a diagnosis. The tests ordered will depend on your symptoms. This test can also monitor inflammatory diseases.
In this test, a tall, thin tube holds a sample of your blood. The speed at which the red blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube is measured. Inflammation can cause abnormal proteins to appear in your blood. These proteins cause your red blood cells to clump together. This makes them fall more quickly.
Hemogram or CBC is a very common test. Many people have a CBC performed when they have a routine health examination. If a person is healthy and has results that are within normal limits, then that person may not require another CBC until their health status changes or until their healthcare provider feels that it is necessary. A CBC may be ordered when a person has any number of signs and symptoms that may be related to disorders that affect blood cells. When an individual has fatigue or weakness or has an infection, inflammation, bruising, or bleeding, a health practitioner may order a CBC to help diagnose the cause and/or determine its severity.
When a person has been diagnosed with a disease known to affect blood cells, a CBC will often be ordered on a regular basis to monitor their condition. Likewise, if someone is receiving treatment for a blood-related disorder, then a CBC may be performed frequently to determine if the treatment is effective.
A CBC is a panel of tests that evaluates the three types of cells that circulate in the blood. A CBC includes the following:
- Evaluation of white blood cells, the cells that are part of the body’s defense system against infections and cancer and also play a role in allergies and inflammation: – White blood cell (WBC) count is a count of the total number of white blood cells in a person’s sample of blood.
- Evaluation of red blood cells, the cells that transport oxygen throughout the body: – Red blood cell (RBC) count is a count of the actual number of red blood cells in a person’s sample of blood. – Hemoglobin measures the total amount of the oxygen-carrying protein in the blood, which generally reflects the number of red blood cells in the blood. – Hematocrit measures the percentage of a person’s total blood volume that consists of red blood cells.
- Red blood cell indices are calculations that provide information on the physical characteristics of the RBCs:
- Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of a single red blood cell.
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) is a calculation of the average amount of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell.
- Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculation of the average concentration of hemoglobin inside a single red blood cell.
- Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a calculation of the variation in the size of RBCs.
- The CBC may also include reticulocyte count, which is a measurement of the absolute count or percentage of young red blood cells in blood.
Azotemia is a type of nephrotoxicity that involves excess nitrogen compounds in the blood. In severe cases, it has the potential to adversely affect the kidneys and cause acute renal failure.
The creatinine blood test measures the level of creatinine in the blood. This test is done to see how well your kidneys are working. Creatinine can also be measured with a urine test. Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Approximately 2% of the body’s creatine is converted to creatinine every day. Creatinine is transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys. The kidneys filter out most of the creatinine and dispose of it in the urine. Because the muscle mass in the body is relatively constant from day to day, the creatinine production normally remains essentially unchanged on a daily basis.
The lipid profile is used as part of a cardiac risk assessment to help determine an individual’s risk of heart disease and to help make decisions about what treatment may be best if there is borderline or high risk.
Lipids are a group of fats and fat-like substances that are important constituents of cells and sources of energy. Monitoring and maintaining healthy levels of these lipids is important in staying healthy.
The results of the lipid profile are considered along with other known risk factors of heart disease to develop a plan of treatment and follow-up. Depending on the results and other risk factors, treatment options may involve lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise or lipid-lowering medications such as statins.
A lipid profile typically includes:
- Total cholesterol — this test measures all of the cholesterol in all the lipoprotein particles.
- High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — measures the cholesterol in HDL particles; often called “good cholesterol” because it removes excess cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal.
- Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — calculates the cholesterol in LDL particles; often called “bad cholesterol” because it deposits excess cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis. Usually, the amount of LDL-C is calculated using the results of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and triglycerides.
- Triglycerides — measures all the triglycerides in all the lipoprotein particles; most is in the very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).
Some other information may be reported as part of the lipid profile. These parameters are calculated from the results of the tests identified above.
- Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) — calculated from triglycerides/5; this formula is based on the typical composition of VLDL particles.
- Non-HDL-C — calculated from total cholesterol minus HDL-C.
- Cholesterol/HDL ratio — calculated ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C.
An extended profile (or advanced lipid testing) may also include low-density lipoprotein particle number/concentration (LDL-P). This test measures the number of LDL particles, rather than measuring the amount of LDL-cholesterol. It is thought that this value may more accurately reflect heart disease risk in certain people. For more, see Common Questions #5 or the article on LDL Particle Testing.
The PSA test measures the level of PSA in a man’s blood. For this test, a blood sample is sent to a laboratory for analysis. The results are usually reported as nanograms of PSA per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood.
The blood level of PSA is often elevated in men with prostate cancer, and the PSA test was originally approved by the FDA in 1986 to monitor the progression of prostate cancer in men who had already been diagnosed with the disease.
In addition to prostate cancer, a number of benign (not cancerous) conditions can cause a man’s PSA level to rise. The most frequent benign prostate conditions that cause an elevation in PSA level are prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (enlargement of the prostate). There is no evidence that prostatitis or BPH leads to prostate cancer, but it is possible for a man to have one or both of these conditions and to develop prostate cancer as well.
Is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver. It can cause both acute and chronic infections. Many people have no symptoms during the initial infection. Some develop a rapid onset of sickness with vomiting, yellowish skin, tiredness, dark urine and abdominal pain.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) tests may be used for a variety of reasons. Some of the tests detect antibodies produced in response to HBV infection; some detect antigens produced by the virus, and others detect viral DNA.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, the body’s natural defense system. Without a strong immune system, the body has trouble fighting off disease. Both the virus and the infection it causes are called HIV. Several types of tests check your blood or body fluids to see if you’re infected. Most can’t detect HIV right away, because it takes time for your body to make antibodies or for enough viruses to grow inside you. It may be up to 6 months before you’ll see a positive result, which means an early test could be negative even though you’re infected.
The Pap test looks for cancers and precancers in the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina). Precancers are cell changes that might become cancer if they are not treated the right way. It can find early signs of cervical cancer. If caught early, the chance of successful treatment of cervical cancer is very high. Pap tests can also find abnormal cervical cells before they turn into cancer cells. Most women ages 21 to 65 should get Pap tests as part of routine health care. Even if you are not currently sexually active, you should still have a Pap test. Women who have gone through menopause (when a woman’s periods stop) and are younger than 65 still need regular Pap tests too.
Ultrasound imaging of the abdomen uses sound waves to produce pictures of the structures within the upper abdomen. It is used to help diagnose pain or distention and evaluate the kidneys, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen and abdominal aorta.
Ultrasound is used to help diagnose a variety of conditions, such as:
- abdominal pain or distention.
- abnormal liver function.
- enlarged abdominal organ.
- stones in the gallbladder or kidney.
- an aneurysm in the aorta.
Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses or micro calcifications. It is recommending yearly screening mammography starting at age 40, and every two years between the ages of 50 and 74.
An echocardiogram is a test that uses ultrasound to evaluate your heart muscle and heart valves. It can:
- assess the overall function of your heart
- determine the presence of many types of heart disease
- follow the progress of heart valve disease over time
- evaluate the effectiveness of medical or surgical treatments
Thyroid ultrasonography is the most common and extremely useful, safe, way to image the thyroid gland and its pathology. An ultrasound of the thyroid produces pictures of the thyroid gland and the adjacent structures in the neck. The thyroid gland is located in front of the neck just above the collar bones and is shaped like a butterfly, with one lobe on either side of the neck connected by a narrow band of tissue. It is one of nine endocrine glands located throughout the body that make and send hormones into the bloodstream.
Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis (ulceration, polyps) and grants the opportunity for biopsy or removal of suspected colorectal cancer lesions. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimeter or less. Colonoscopies are often used to diagnose colon cancer, but are also frequently used to diagnose inflammatory bowel disease.